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In this paper we extend to non-classical set theories the standard strategy of proving independence using Boolean-valued models. This extension is provided by means of a new technique that, combining algebras (by taking their product), is able to provide product-algebra-valued models of set theories. In this paper we also provide applications of this new technique by showing that: (1) we can import the classical independence results to non-classical set theory (as an example we prove the independence of
$\mathsf {CH}$
); and (2) we can provide new independence results. We end by discussing the role of non-classical algebra-valued models for the debate between universists and multiversists and by arguing that non-classical models should be included as legitimate members of the multiverse.
For a set x, let ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ be the set of all permutations of x. We prove in ZF (without the axiom of choice) several results concerning this notion, among which are the following:
(1) For all sets x such that ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ is Dedekind infinite, $\left| {{{\cal S}_{{\rm{fin}}}}\left( x \right)} \right| < \left| {{\cal S}\left( x \right)} \right|$ and there are no finite-to-one functions from ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ into ${{\cal S}_{{\rm{fin}}}}\left( x \right)$, where ${{\cal S}_{{\rm{fin}}}}\left( x \right)$ denotes the set of all permutations of x which move only finitely many elements.
(2) For all sets x such that ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ is Dedekind infinite, $\left| {{\rm{seq}}\left( x \right)} \right| < \left| {{\cal S}\left( x \right)} \right|$ and there are no finite-to-one functions from ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ into seq (x), where seq (x) denotes the set of all finite sequences of elements of x.
(3) For all infinite sets x such that there exists a permutation of x without fixed points, there are no finite-to-one functions from ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ into x.
(4) For all sets x, $|{[x]^2}| < \left| {{\cal S}\left( x \right)} \right|$.
For a set x, let ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ be the set of all permutations of x. We prove by the method of permutation models that the following statements are consistent with ZF:
(1) There is an infinite set x such that $|\wp \left( x \right)| < |{\cal S}\left( x \right)| < |se{q^{1 - 1}}\left( x \right)| < |seq\left( x \right)|$, where $\wp \left( x \right)$ is the power set of x, seq (x) is the set of all finite sequences of elements of x, and seq1-1 (x) is the set of all finite sequences of elements of x without repetition.
(2) There is a Dedekind infinite set x such that $|{\cal S}\left( x \right)| < |{[x]^3}|$ and such that there exists a surjection from x onto ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$.
(3) There is an infinite set x such that there is a finite-to-one function from ${\cal S}\left( x \right)$ into x.
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